Rosmarinic acid was first isolated from rosemary by Ellis in 1958, and it is widely distributed in plants, mainly in the Lamiaceae, Lithoaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Lindenaceae, Umbelliferae. in a variety of plants. Rosmarinic acid is a natural water-soluble antioxidant with various biological activities and is widely used in the fields of food, medicine and cosmetics. This article reviews the extraction, separation and quantitative analysis methods of rosmarinic acid, aiming to provide a valuable reference for rosmarinic acid production and application enterprises.
1. Antioxidant result
Rosmarinic acid can not just terminate the chain reaction of lipid peroxidation by competitively binding to lipid peroxyl groups, yet additionally play an antioxidant duty by hindering the protein synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide.
2. Anti-bacterial effect
Rosmarinic acid has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both germs as well as fungis.
3. Antiviral impact
Rosmarinic acid has repressive effect on human immunodeficiency infection, herpes infection as well as Japanese sleeping sickness virus.
4. Anti-inflammatory effect
Rosmarinic acid has great anti-inflammatory task. Because of its high efficiency, low poisoning, as well as low damaging responses in anti-inflammatory facets.
Solvent extraction method is a method of submersing medical products in a suitable solvent at room temperature level or cozy conditions for a certain period of time to remove the active ingredients. This approach is convenient and also easy to run. Huang Dan, Feng Zhiping, Yu Guangrong used solvent extraction to remove rosmarinic acid in Perilla frutescens, using 90% ethanol as the extractant, the extraction temperature was 65 ° C, the removal time was 3h, and the proportion of product to liquid was 1:50 (w/ v), the return of rosmarinic acid was 23.63 mg/g. Zhou Ping, Lv Xiaoling drawn out rosmarinic acid in Perilla frutescens, 50% ethanol was the extractant, the ratio of strong to liquid was 1:50 (w/v), the extraction temperature level was 65 ° C, and also the extraction time was 35min. The removal price was 1.061%, which was 30.18% higher than that of warm water extraction.
The most frequently used method for rosmarinic acid extraction is ultrasonic extraction Ultrasonic extraction is a method of removing energetic ingredients making use of ultrasonic waves. The principle is to use the cavitation result of ultrasonic waves to destroy the cells of medicinal products, so that the solvent can quickly permeate right into the cells. At the same time, the solid vibration of ultrasonic waves can send massive energy to the drawn out medical materials and solvents, making them relocate at broadband, which reinforces the launch of intracellular compounds. Diffusion and also dissolution to accelerate the leaching of active ingredients. Gao Jing researched the extraction process of rosmarinic acid in salvia, making use of the approach of ultrasonic removal, under the condition of single factor as well as solitary degree, the 4 aspects of solid-liquid proportion, methanol concentration, extraction temperature level as well as removal time were orthogonalized. In the layout, the material of rosmarinic acid removed from ginseng was used as the confirmation index for the extraction of salvia. The result is that when the proportion of solid to liquid is 1:25 and 50% methanol is extracted at 75 ℃ for 30min, the extraction impact is the best. Chen Lingling, Zhu Dequan, and so on used ultrasonic removal method to remove rosmarinic acid in Xihuangcao. The optimum extraction process conditions were ultrasonic removal with 20 times of 30% ethanol for 40 minutes. Zhu Heyun, Peng Xiuling, Feng Bo used the technique of ultrasonic extraction to extract rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris. The removal procedure was ultrasonic time 1h, removal solvent 70% ethanol, ultrasonic power 400W, material-liquid proportion 1:30. Zou Shengqin and also Sun Xiaoqing used ultrasonic removal to extract rosmarinic acid in rosemary. Zhou Sound, Lv Xiaoling, and so on utilized ultrasonic modern technology to extract rosmarinic acid from Perilla frutescens, 40% ethanol was the extractant, the material-liquid ratio was 1:60 (m/V), the ultrasonic result power was 300W, the removal time was 15min, and the rosemary The removal yield of aromatic acid was 1.146%. The combination of ultrasonic approach as well as other techniques can substantially improve the extraction rate. Zhang Chunyan researched the process problems of ultrasonic-assisted thermal reflux technique to remove rosmarinic acid from rosemary. The outcomes reveal that the ultrasonic pretreatment time is 10min, and also 15% ethanol is solvent, the removal time was 1h, as well as the extraction price of rosmarinic acid was 94.94% under this condition.
Supercritical liquid extraction is a brand-new technology that utilizes the fluid developed by a particular substance in the supercritical region to essence and divide the active components in plants. Supercritical fluid refers to an unique state that is neither liquid neither gas when a substance is above its essential temperature as well as vital stress. With similar concentration and density similar to fluid, it has solid liquifying ability for several substances and also can be made use of as extraction solvent. Chen Sili, Zhang Chong, and so on made use of supercritical carbon dioxide removal method to extract rosmarinic acid in rosemary. The determined procedure conditions were removal pressure 40MPa, removal temperature level 65 ℃, removal time 1h, and the quantity of entrainer (ethanol) was 0.60 ml · g-1.
In addition, some enzymatic techniques have actually additionally been related to the removal procedure of rosmarinic acid. Chemical removal is a brand-new innovation that selects proper enzymes, disintegrates plant tissues gently with enzymatic reaction, and also extracts effective elements from plants to the maximum extent. It has the advantages of high response specificity, rapidity, high effectiveness, moderate reaction problems and also very easy control, etc, as well as is especially ideal for the extraction of active ingredients with very reduced active ingredients as well as structural adjustments easily triggered by the impact of solvents. For instance, the cellulase-assisted removal technique, Dong Yanli, Liu Qifeng, and so on have actually examined the procedure of cellulase-assisted removal of rosmarinic acid in perilla. The pH was 4.0, the removal temperature was 50 ° C, and the removal time was 15 min. Yao Hui drew out the rosmarinic acid in perilla by chemical hydrolysis. The chemical hydrolysis temperature level was 50 ° C, the material-liquid ratio was 1:40 (m/V), the quantity of enzyme added was 25.0 U/g, and the chemical hydrolysis time was 5 min. The removal rate of rosmarinic acid was 0.63% after warm reflux removal for 20min and also secondary removal under ideal conditions, which was 26.26% greater than the standard warm water extraction approach. 1.5 Microwave-assisted removal technique The microwave-assisted extraction method is a sort of microwave with 2.45 billion ultra-high frequency vibrations per second created by a magnetron, to ensure that the extracted polar particles can be swiftly transformed as well as oriented, thereby generating shared interaction between particles. Accident, extrusion, removal innovation that makes the active ingredients easy to liquify and release. This technique has the attributes of high selectivity, short operation time, reduced solvent usage as well as high yield of active components. Xu Chunming and also Li Dan utilized microwave-assisted extraction of rosmarinic acid in perilla leaves. The process problems were microwave power 560W, therapy time 4.5 minutes, and also the proportion of material to fluid was 1:33 (each 33mL remedy contained 1g of material). Rosemary The acid yield was 2.55 g/mg. With the comparison of microwave-assisted extraction as well as traditional removal procedure, it can be wrapped up that the process of using microwave-assisted extraction of rosmarinic acid in perilla leaves is possible.
Diabetic nephropathy is a common chronic diabetic complication and one of the causes of end-stage renal failure. The accompanying uremia symptoms have increased the number of dialysis patients. About 20-30% of diabetic patients will develop diabetic nephropathy, of which type 1 diabetes will evolve into diabetic nephropathy within 10-15 years, and there is a 50% chance of progressing to end-stage renal disease; while type 2 diabetes has 20%-40% of diabetic nephropathy progresses, but only 20% of the time after 20 years of developing end-stage renal disease. According to the end-stage renal disease annual report of the American Renal Information System, Taiwan has the second highest prevalence of diabetic nephropathy in the world, the highest incidence in the world, and the fifth among the top ten causes of death in China. Treatment methods to delay or improve diabetic nephropathy are extremely urgent issues.
The hyperglycemic environment in diabetic patients promotes the synthesis of advanced glycated proteins (Advanced Glycosylation End Products, AGEs), which in turn triggers the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of pro-inflammatory factors in cells in the body. damage and attract macrophages to infiltrate. Then macrophages will release tissue factor, causing pathological changes such as renal basement membrane thickening, matrix expansion, and renal coagulation. Rosmarinic acid (RA) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic biological activities, and it can also promote the expression of anti-inflammatory factor IL-10, thereby inhibiting the expression of macrophages. secretes tissue factor. Therefore, in this study, we injected STZ into C57BL/6 mice to induce diabetic nephropathy to establish an in vivo model, and also used the RAW264.7 cell line as an in vitro model to explore whether rosmarinic acid could By inhibiting the release of tissue factor from macrophages, we can improve diabetic nephropathy and try to identify the possible signaling pathways involved.
According to the experimental results, rosmarinic acid can not only inhibit the expression of tissue factor and inflammatory factors secreted by LPS-induced RAW264.7, but also convert it from the inflammatory M1 phenotype to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Some mice treated with rosmarinic acid not only regained their body weight, but also significantly decreased their blood glucose concentration and urine output, and had the ability to improve kidney function. Observation of kidney sections and staining results showed that in addition to reducing basement membrane thickening and matrix swelling, rosmarinic acid could also reduce macrophage infiltration and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) expression. And then alleviate the phenomenon of inflammation and fibrosis, to achieve the effect of protecting the kidneys.
1. Pregnancy or breastfeeding: If you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you should only take medicines recommended by your physician.
2. Taking other medicines: including over-the-counter, over-the-counter medicines or prescribed medicines.
3. Allergic to any substance containing rosemary: or allergic to other medicines and herbs.
4. Suffering from other diseases: such as physiological system disorders, or any other health conditions.
5. Allergies to certain substances: such as certain foods, artificial colors, preservatives, or animal allergies.