1.1 Application of low activity and low molecular weight polyisobutylene
PIB has very broad application prospects, not only can be widely used in electrical insulation materials, lubricant additives, petroleum additives, putty adhesives and other fields; it can also be used in chewing gum additives and rubber and other polymer modification.
(1) Application in lubricating oil
There are four commonly used ashless dispersants (1) monobutylphthalimide; (2) bisbutylphthalimide; (3) polybutylenephthalimide; (4) high molecular weight dispersant. The performance of gasoline detergent with PIB as the main compounding agent exceeds the level of foreign gasoline detergent LZ8195191. In _stroke oil, PIB can not only improve the lubricating performance of the oil; it can also improve the combustion performance and exhaust blockage of the oil; after adding PIB to the oil, it can significantly improve the anti-oxidation performance and smoke exhaust performance; its thermal The decomposition performance greatly improves the combustion performance and exhaust blocking performance of the oil; after adding PIB to the oil, the oxidation performance is greatly improved, and the smoke exhaust performance is also significantly improved. PIB has excellent shear stability and can be used to configure hydraulic oil and multi-grade gear oil; but it cannot be configured with multi-grade internal combustion engine oil with lower viscosity grade and large span because of poor thickening ability and low temperature performance of PIB.
(2) Application in polymer
PIB can be divided into three types according to the size of molecular weight: (1) low molecular weight polyisobutylene; (2) medium molecular weight polyisobutylene; (3) high molecular weight polyisobutylene. At present, only the German company BASF can produce high molecular weight polyisobutene. The application of polyisobutylene in polymers is mainly used as adhesives and sealants, used in rubber processing and as insulating oil in wires and cables.
(3) Application in emulsion explosives
Emulsion explosive is a new type of water-in-oil (w/O) latex explosive. Developed in the 1970s. Because of its good explosiveness, good water resistance, and less toxic gas, it is widely recognized and praised by users. Through experiments, Ye Zhiwen et al found that the emulsion explosive prepared with polyisobutylene had good performance. Main performances: (1) The W/O emulsion particles are small and the distribution is relatively uniform; (2) The liquid film has good stability; (3) The storage stability is high; (4) The high and low temperature cycle is high, and the cycle test can reach 25 times. Cheng Jingjing et al. found through experiments that the surface tension of emulsion explosives will decrease with the increase of emulsifier content, but the decrease is not large; in the emulsification system, adding emulsifier can greatly reduce the boundary tension of the system, and the mass fraction of emulsifier is generally less than 2.5%.
(4) Application in medicine
The application of PIB in medicine mainly depends on its colorless, odorless and non-toxic properties. Up to now, it is mainly used in two ways: application in transdermal (controlled release) patches and preparation of microcapsules. The chemical properties of polyisobutylene are stable and can ensure the original properties and therapeutic effects of the drug, so it is suitable for different types of drugs.
(5) Application in cosmetics
The application of PIB in cosmetics mainly has three forms: 1) cosmetic grade polyisobutene; 2) hydrogenated polyisobutene (synthetic cartonane); 3) polyglycerol methacrylate. Cosmetic-grade polyisobutylene has good compatibility with the skin because its structure is similar to the straight-chain alkanes in sebum. It is non-toxic, odorless, high in purity, not easy to be oxidatively emulsified, can form a water-resistant film, and has strong moisturizing properties. The main application range is skin cream, lipstick, make-up. At present, the cosmetic grade polyisobutylene used in my country mainly comes from Japan and the United Kingdom.
1.2 Application of HRPIB
HRPIB has good low temperature dispersibility and high temperature detergency, it can be used as a lubricant additive for the production of oil products; it is compatible with general non-polar substances and polymer materials o HRPIB is mainly used in the production of oil products by thermal addition Ashless dispersant (ie polyisobutylene butyl-phthalimide). As long as it is the field of common PIB application, HRPIB can be used in almost all applications; such as: lubricating oil viscosity index improver, paraffin, rubber improver, electrical insulating material, gap filling and sealing material, slow release nitrogenous fertilizer, oil day fracturing fluid It is used as a drag-reducing agent, steel wire rope oil, chewing gum base, waterproof explosive, rocket propellant component, moisturizing agent for medicine and cosmetics, etc. The production of HRPIB is much higher than that of ordinary PIB. HRPIB is currently mainly used to produce some high-end products, such as: ashless dispersants namely polyisobutylene phthalimide and polyisobutylene amine.
Using polyisobutylene with a very narrow molecular weight distribution as the main raw material, polyisobutylene amine (PIBA) can be prepared through processes such as oxidation, aminolysis, and compounding. Polyisobutylene amine is the main component of the fourth-generation gasoline cleaning and dispersing agent. This type of gasoline cleaning and dispersing agent has the functions of demulsification, dispersion, cleaning, anti-oxidation and rust removal.
Lin Jianmin and others also conducted a series of experiments. A series of benzylamines were synthesized from polyisobutenylphenol, formaldehyde and polyene polyamine by alkylation of HRPIB and phenol under acid catalysis to generate polyisobutenylphenol.
2. Application of medium molecular weight polyisobutylene
The catalyst system of relative molecular mass polyisobutylene in domestic production is only aluminum trichloride catalyst system. Restricted by the catalytic system and process technology, the medium molecular weight polyisobutylene products not only have low purity, but also have a wide relative molecular weight distribution and poor appearance.
In agriculture, the pesticides made of polyisobutylene (My=10000) have good insecticidal effects.