Scavenge free radicals and active oxygen
DL-Thioctic Acid can scavenge hydroxyl radicals (OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), singlet oxygen (1O2), nitric oxide radicals (NO ), peroxynitroso (OONO) and hypochlorite acid (HClO). Although α-LA cannot scavenge peroxide radicals (ROO·) and superoxide radicals (O—2 ·), the reduced state of α-LA, DHLA, can scavenge free radicals other than singlet oxygen. Therefore, α-LA LA and DHLA can scavenge all the above-mentioned free radicals during the mutual conversion and metabolic regeneration process in the organism.
Interactions with other antioxidants
DHLA is a strong reducing agent that can regenerate many oxidized antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, vitamin E, glutathione (GSH), coenzyme Q, thioredoxin, etc. The redox of DL-Thioctic Acid and DHLA activates the metabolic cycle of other antioxidants in the organism, forming a unique biological antioxidant regeneration cycle network, maintaining the normal level of antioxidants in the body, and jointly exerting the biological antioxidant effect.
DL-Thioctic Acid also significantly increases intracellular GSH levels. GSH is a water-soluble endogenous antioxidant involved in many important physiological processes. GSH deficiency leads to the production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial dysfunction, ultimately leading to neuronal apoptosis. The important biochemical feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the significant reduction of GSH level, so α-LA has a positive effect on the prevention and treatment of PD. The synthesis of GSH in organisms is affected by the availability of cysteine. α-LA can be quickly absorbed by cells and reduced to DHLA, which can be dispersed into various tissues. DHLA reduces cystine to cysteine. Cellular uptake of cysteine is ten times faster than cystine, thereby accelerating GSH biosynthesis. DHLA can increase the concentration of GSH by 30% to 70%.
In the field of medicine, DL-Thioctic Acid is widely used in the prevention and auxiliary treatment of diabetes and its related complications.
Diabetes and chronic complications of diabetes
Enhance sugar metabolism
In 1970, Haugaard et al found that DL-Thioctic Acid can enhance the metabolism of glucose. Studies in recent years have once again confirmed that α-LA can enhance the absorption of glucose by skeletal muscle and red blood cells of non-insulin-dependent diabetic animals and lower blood sugar.
Reduce oxidative stress
Due to the decrease of the body’s antioxidant capacity in diabetics, lipid peroxidation products (such as thiobarbituric acid active substances, lipid peroxides, oxidatively damaged DNA bases, etc.) increase, and the protective antioxidant vitamin E. The levels of vitamin C and reduced GSH decreased. Oxidative stress is an important factor causing diabetic complications. Hyperglycemia stimulates the polyol pathway, leading to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE), which induces the production of reactive oxygen species, thereby enhancing oxidative stress. α-LA can reduce oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen species free radicals.
Relieve symptoms of diabetic neuropathy
α-LA can scavenge free radicals, regenerate antioxidant substances, weaken oxidative stress, speed up nerve conduction rate, correct neuropeptide defects, and restore neuropeptide Y, nerve growth factor and substance P, thereby effectively alleviating or eliminating the frequent occurrence of diabetes Symptoms of neuropathy.
Prevent Diabetic Cataracts
α-LA can inhibit the polyol pathway, reduce the accumulation of sorbitol, maintain the level of NADPH in cells, inhibit the formation of AGE, increase the GSH content in the lens, and thus protect the lens. In vitro experiments have shown that α-LA has specific protection against glucose-induced lens opacity.
Prevention of cardiovascular damage in diabetes
Studies have shown that DL-Thioctic Acid and DHLA have a strong inhibitory effect on the activation of NF-κB caused by NF-α, H2O2, TNF-α and AGE. α-LA can down-regulate the expression of cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, reduce the expression of endothelial cytokines and endothelin, and relieve endothelial dysfunction. α-LA can correct hyperglycemia-induced abnormality of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor and nitric oxide, reduce the effect of diabetes on the expression and activity of cardiac nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and regulate NO-mediated endothelial Cell-dependent vasodilation, maintaining the normal relaxation function of blood vessels.
DL-Thioctic Acid is a high-efficiency antioxidant that plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many diseases.
In the field of health food, antioxidant food health products are mainly used to scavenge free radicals in the body and prevent lipid peroxidation, so as to achieve the purpose of preventing and assisting the treatment of certain diseases.
The antioxidant properties of DL-Thioctic Acid and its clinical application research have matured, and more and more research will focus on its application in the field of health food in the future. The safety of α-LA has been proven in Europe for decades, so the safety of the biggest problem in food application is guaranteed.