Cyanuric acid is additionally called isocyanuric acid, cyanuric acid, molecular formula: C3H3N3O3, appearance is unsmelling white powder or granules, rather soluble in water, melting point 330 ℃, pH well worth of saturated remedy ≥ 4.0. Primarily made use of in the manufacture of cyanuric acid bromide, chloride, bromochloride, iodochloride as well as additionally its cyanurates, esters, made use of in the synthesis of brand-new antiseptic anti-bacterials, water therapy representatives, lightening representatives, chlorinating representatives, bromide Agent, antioxidant, paint ending up, discerning herbicide along with steel cyanide moderator, can similarly be straight used as swimming pool chlorine stabilizer, nylon, plastic, polyester flame immune in addition to aesthetic additive, synthesis of unique material, and so on.
Cyanuric Acid Property
<0.0001 Pa (25 °C)
Store below +30°C.
Soluble in sulfuric acid, dimethylformamide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and diemthyl sulfoxide. Slightly soluble in acetone, benzene, diethyl ether, ethanol and hexane. Insoluble in cold methanol, benzene and chloroform.
Crystalline Powder or Lumps
6.88, 11.40, 13.5(at 25℃)
White to light beige
3.8-4.0 (H2O, 20℃)(saturated solution)
off-wh. cryst., odorless
0.3 g/100mL (25 ºC)
Cyanuric Acid Uses
Cyanuric acid is utilized as a UV absorber for plastic movies.
Cyanuric acid is made use of as a chemical reagent as well as additionally in natural synthesis.
Cyanuric acid is mainly made use of in the preparation of new bleaching representatives, anti-bacterials, water therapy agents, materials, coverings, and metal cyanide corrosion preventions.
Cyanuric acid is made use of to synthesize chlorinated by-products, trichloroisocyanuric acid, sodium or potassium dichloroisocyanurate; used to manufacture cyanuric acid-formaldehyde resin, epoxy material, antioxidant, finishing, glue, chemical as well as weed control Agents, steel cyanide deterioration inhibitors, polymer product modifiers, etc; made use of in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical halotrihydroxyzine.
Pollution Status of Cyanuric Acid and Its Influence on Disinfection Effect
Contamination status: my nation has actually not yet carried out comprehensive studies on the concentration of cyanuric acid in swimming pool water, however some foreign studies have revealed that the web content of cyanuric acid in swimming pool water might surpass the requirement. For example, Sandel’s study located that the average worth of cyanuric acid in water is 75.9 mg/L, as well as the greatest value can be as high as 406mg/L. Rakestraw’s survey showed that greater than 25% (122/486) of swimming pools included cyanuric acid higher than 100mg/L, even as high as 140mg/L, and the highest possible focus might get to 500mg/L. As a result, there is an opportunity that the excessive dosage of disinfectant in swimming pool water in our nation will enhance the web content of cyanuric acid.
Impact on sanitation impact: Throughout the sanitation process, cyanuric acid will progressively gather and also boost with the consumption of hypochlorous acid. When its concentration is high enough, it will inhibit the production of hypochlorous acid. At this time, even if a high focus of disinfectant is placed in, it can not produce adequate This is called the “chlorine lock” phenomenon of cyanuric acid. Anderson et al simulated different focus of residual chlorine (0.25, 0.50 as well as 1.00 mg/L) in the laboratory under various cyanuric acid degrees (0, 25, 50 as well as 100 mg/L) in the actual pool. For the bactericidal effect of coccus, at a consistent temperature of 20 ° C and also a pH of 7.0 as well as 9.0, it is believed that the focus of cyanuric acid (25-30) mg/L can support recurring chlorine, yet when it comes to high focus of chlorine, cyanuric acid The greater the concentration of uric acid, the greater the concentration of chlorine needed to accomplish the very same sanitation result.
Cyanuric acid is taken into consideration to be a disinfection byproduct generated throughout the use of disinfectants. Generally talking, its poisoning is reduced. Within 24 hr after human consumption, greater than 98% of cyanuric acid is directly secreted from pee without metabolic process. Making the most of this function, the intake specifications of swimming pool water for swimming pools can be gotten by gauging the concentration of cyanuric acid in urine samples of swimming pools and also pool when accomplishing health and wellness danger assessment. Nonetheless, the most up to date research study by Sinclair et al. found that the metabolic capacity of cyanuric acid differs substantially among various groups of people. Regarding 25% of individuals secrete less than 80% of their consumption dosage within 24-hour. Using cyanuric acid as an evaluation indication will underestimate Group consumption of swimming pool water.
Synthesis of Cyanuric Acid
The methods reported in existing literature about the synthesis of cyanuric acid mainly include urea pyrolysis, phosgene and ammonia reaction synthesis, cyanate trimerization, hydrocyanic acid oxidation, cyanuric chloride hydrolysis and the like. One is the production of cyanuric acid with urea as raw material, and the other is the polymerization of cyanuric chloride, or the treatment of HCN and Cl under the catalysis of a catalyst to generate cyanuric acid. Although these two traditional methods are economical and can be mass-produced, they both have some disadvantages, such as cumbersome process for synthesizing trimeric acid by urea pyrolysis, multiple parallel side reactions, reduced selectivity of the target product, and product purification. Complicated, the methylene urea in urea makes the produced cyanuric acid black in color and poor in quality, and the sulfuric acid waste liquid in the acidification hydrolysis process will cause serious environmental pollution. The method is too toxic and the process is not environmentally friendly. In this paper, melamine was used as raw material to generate gt-C3N4 through thermal polymerization, and cyanuric acid was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of gt-C3N4 with nitric acid, and X-ray single crystal diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer were used to synthesize cyanuric acid. Analysis and characterization methods such as (FTIR) and elemental analysis were used to characterize the product.
1. Reagents and Instruments
Melamine, nitric acid and methanol were purchased from Beijing Chemical Plant, and the purity of the reagents were all analytical grade.
Preparation of gt-C3N4: gt-C3N4 was prepared according to the method reported in the literature. Weigh 10.0 g of melamine and put it in a quartz boat, then place the quartz boat in a temperature-programmed tube furnace, replace the air in the tube with N2 gas, set the heating rate at 5 °C/min under N2 gas atmosphere, and raise the temperature to 500 °C. ℃, keep the temperature at 500 ℃, and calcined for 1 h. After the calcination was completed, it was cooled to room temperature to obtain 6.2 g of yellow powder gt-C3N4 with a mass yield of 62%.
Preparation of cyanuric acid: Add the prepared gt-C3N4 and 1 mol/L dilute nitric acid into the hydrothermal reaction kettle at a mass ratio of 1:10, and conduct a hydrothermal reaction at 140 °C for 2 h, and wait for the reaction kettle to cool down. After reaching room temperature, the reaction solution was evaporated to dryness to obtain a white crystal product.
3. Single crystal cultivation
Take a small amount of white crystals, dissolve them in aqueous methanol (V (methanol): V (water) = 1:1), then pour the solution into a 10 mL glass bottle, seal the bottle with a small-hole sealing film, and then Place the glass bottle in a cool place to allow the solvent to evaporate slowly to obtain massive colorless transparent crystals, and select crystals of appropriate size on the stage of a polarizing microscope for single crystal diffraction testing.
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