1. Used as spice: The Standardization Administration of China stipulates that trans-caryophyllene can be used as a natural spice for food. Its acetylate is also a fragrance and can be used in perfumes. For example, trans-caryophyllene can be used to produce mango flavor with rosin type, and the mass ratio of each compound is: kenene (0.28), β-pinene (2%), 3-carene (42%), myrcene (14%), Alpha-Phellandrene (1.5%), Gamma-Terpinene (1.2%), Benzaldehyde (5%), Trans Caryophyllene (14%), Valencia Orangene (0.02%) , consumption of alcohol or propylene glycol (20%). Mix well at room temperature, and the product has a strong rosin-type mango fruit aroma.
2. Local anesthesia: trans-caryophyllene was intravenously injected into rabbits and administered to the conjunctival sac (10-1000 mg/L), and the stimulation threshold of membrane reflex increased with the increase of the dose. The action of β-caryophyllene must strictly depend on the structure of the intracyclic double bond. The local anesthetic effect of trans-caryophyllene began to manifest 5 minutes after intravenous administration, and rapidly weakened and disappeared within 15 minutes.
3. Anti-inflammatory effect: trans-caryophyllene can selectively inhibit cyclooxygenase COX-2, play the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and can protect gastric mucosa from damage caused by inflammatory factors such as ethanol and strong acid. It does not affect the secretion of gastric acid, and has anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer effects.
4. Treatment of colitis: Male mice were fed 5% sodium dextran sulfate for 7 days, which caused colitis. Trans-caryophyllene solutions at 30 and 300 mg/kg were fed daily, along with sodium dextran sulfate solution. After 7 days of gavage with dextran sodium sulfate solution, the body weight and colon length of the mice were measured, and tissue damage and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and inflammatory cytokines in serum and colon were assessed. Dextran sodium sulfate solution damaged colon tissue, increased myeloperoxidase activity and inflammatory cytokines, reduced the weight of mice, and shortened the length of the colon. After 300 mg/kg trans-caryophyllene administration, colon shortening was significantly inhibited and body weight was slightly reduced, colonic inflammation was significantly reduced and myeloperoxidase activity was inhibited. At the same time, trans-caryophyllene significantly inhibited the IL-6 protein in serum (reduced by 55%) and the mRNA level of IL-6 in tissue. It shows that trans-caryophyllene can improve the experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium, and is useful in the prevention and treatment of colitis.
4. Stimulating effect: Trans caryophyllene has a great stimulating effect on the skin after oxidation, which is easy to cause skin allergies. Trans-Caryophyllene was less irritating after 10 weeks of air exposure. Trans caryophyllene oxides are moderately strong allergens. In addition, trans-caryophyllene is a sensitizer because the double bond of trans-caryophyllene is easily oxidized to form peroxides.
5. Insect repellent and insecticidal effect: β-Caryophyllene extracted from clove oil and caryophyllene oxide obtained by ozonation reduction have the effect of repelling insects. For example, a composition for trapping and killing citrus psyllids can be prepared. The composition includes trans-caryophyllene, D-limonene and linalool, the volume ratio is (1~3):(2~3):1, and the contents are 4.3 respectively. ~43μL/mL, 4.3~43μL/mL, 1.4~14μL/mL, and the rest are mineral oil. The composition can increase the number of traps to 25.1 times under the condition of high density of citrus psyllids (host of Jiulixiang). When the density of psyllids is low (gong mandarin host), the number of traps can also be increased to 20.4 times, the trapping effect is obvious, and it has the advantages of high efficiency, environmental protection and lasting effect.
6. Environmental protection: The diterpene structure of BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE contains two double bonds, which can easily react with ozone, which can well remove ozone in the air. Trans-Caryophyllene can form particles easily absorbed by plants with the particles in the air, which can purify the air. Compared with most monoterpenes, the adsorption rate of trans caryophyllene is higher. Most of the monoterpenes are not as stable as sesquiterpene, the precursor compound of BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE in the reaction with ozone, and the effect is not as good as that of BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE.