1. The main active ingredients of Bellflower Extract are saponins, and the saponins of Bellflower Extract are all oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpene derivatives, which can be divided into three categories: bellflower acids, bellflower diacids, and telegalic acids.
2. Flavonoids were earlier separated from the aerial part of Platycodon grandiflorum in the early 1980s to obtain 9 kinds of flavonoids, and an anthocyanin was isolated from its flower; recently, 4 kinds of flavonoids were isolated from the aerial part, and celery luteolin and luteolin; 5 kinds of flavonoids were isolated from its seeds, such as docetaxel, quercetin and so on. Natural flavonoids have small molecular weight, can be quickly absorbed by the human body, enter the blood and tissues, and then exhibit anti-fatigue, capillary expansion, anti-oxidation, anti-aging, anti-mutation, anti-tumor and other effects. Studies have shown that flavonoids have a strong ability to scavenge free radicals, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, and inhibit lipid peroxidation.
3. The polysaccharides and anthocyanin platycodon polysaccharides were fractionated and purified by DEAE-cellulose, and the three polysaccharide single components PGPsI, PGPsII and PGPsIII were obtained, and their molecular weights were 2640, 89759 and 63453, which were analyzed by SephadexG-200 gel chromatography, The components identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy and iodine reaction are single, free of nucleic acid, protein and starch. Anthocyanins are glycosides formed by the combination of anthocyanins and sugars through glycosidic bonds. They mainly exist in flowers and fruits, making them appear in different colors such as red, purple red to blue. Bellflower Extract have good stability under most conditions, but in the presence of alkaline and oxidizing agents, the stability of Bellflower anthocyanins is poor. When the concentration was higher, the scavenging efficiency of Vc and platycodon anthocyanins on DPPH would increase exponentially.
4. Fatty acids and fatty oils 34 kinds of fatty acids were isolated and identified from the fatty oil of bellflower, including 15 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids, the main types were linoleic acid (42.79%), palmitoleic acid (0.30%), 11-eicosenoic acid (1.53%), linolenic acid (14.02%), etc.; 19 kinds of saturated fatty acids, the main types are palmitic acid (13.71%), stearic acid (1.36%), arachidic acid (0.79%), behenic acid (1.78%) , Lignoceric acid (1.38%), Hexacosanoic acid (3.14%), Octacosanoic acid (3.51%), etc.
5. Bellflower Extract Trace elements and amino acids contain Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Zn, Cr, Mg, Ca, Sr, Li and other trace elements.
6. Bellflower Extract Contains a variety of amino acids, including 8 kinds of essential amino acids, accounting for 6.44% of the total amino acids. The total amino acid content is as high as 15.01%. Among them, уγ-aminobutyric acid is a neurotransmitter chemical substance that plays an important role in the energy metabolism of the human brain.
7. Others 12 kinds ofBellflower Extract compounds and their derivatives were identified from the aerial part of Bellflower root; two kinds of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated from the petroleum ether extract of Bellflower root. In addition, Bellflower Extract also contains steroids (α-spinach, △7-stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, etc.), proteins, alkaloids, volatile oils and other chemical components.