1. Saponins Saponins are mainly divided into 3 categories according to their parent structures: Dammarane, Oleanane, Ocotillol, 49 have been isolated so far. species, including the newly discovered ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg2, Rg3, Rh1, Rh2, Ro, pseudoginsenoside F11, etc.
2. Sugars and polysaccharides Sucrose (8.0% yield) and ginseng trisaccharide have been separated from American ginseng. The average carbohydrate content of American ginseng in each production area was: reducing sugar 3.70%, oligosaccharide 15.40%, polysaccharide 49.74%, and total sugar 68.84%. 11.74% to 19.86% of water-soluble pectin can be extracted from American ginseng of various origins. Water-soluble pectin is composed of galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose and a small amount of unknown sugars. The yield of hydrochloric acid-soluble pectin was 5.52%-9.62%. The yield of acid polysaccharide is 20.40%～29.45%.
3. Amino acids American ginseng is isolated from special amino acids – notoginseng, trypphane, 7 kinds of essential free amino acids, etc.
4. Fatty acids were extracted and isolated from American ginseng to identify caproic acid, heptanoic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, octadecenoic acid, octadecadienoic acid, 9, 12, 5 -Ocetatrienoic acid, 8-methyldecanoic acid.
5. Polyacetylene compounds are volatile, few of them, and have strong cytotoxic activity against leukemia cells (L1210). Three new cytotoxic polyacetylenes were isolated from American ginseng: PQ-1, PQ-2, PQ-3, and then three similar compounds were proposed, which are Panaquin-queeols1, 2, and 3 respectively.
6. Sterols have been isolated from American ginseng roots to obtain daucosterol, stigmastenol, stigmast-3,5-dien-7-one (stigmast-3,5-dien-7-one) one) etc.
7. Other ingredients include VA, VB, VB2, VB6, enzymes, volatile oils, such as β-farnesene, active polyphenols, such as caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid.
(1) Ginsenoside Rb1: molecular formula C54H92O23, molecular weight 1109.26. White powder (ethanol-butanol), mp197℃～198℃, [α]D22+12.42°(c=0.91, methanol). (2) Ginsenoside Rb2: molecular formula C53H90O22, molecular weight 1079.24. mp200℃～203℃, [α]D22+3.05°(c=0.98, methanol). Ginsenoside Rc: molecular formula C53H90O22, molecular weight 1079.24. White powder (ethanol-butanol), mp199℃～201℃, [α]D22+1.93°(c=1.03, methanol).
(3) Ginsenoside Rd: molecular formula C48H82O18, molecular weight 947.12. White powder (ethanol-ethyl acetate), mp206℃～209℃, [α]D22+19.38°(c=1.03, methanol). (4) Ginsenoside Re: molecular formula C48H82O18, molecular weight 947.12. Colorless needle crystals (5% ethanol), mp201℃～203℃, [α]D300°～-1.0°(c=1.00, methanol). (5) Ginsenoside Rf: molecular formula C42H72O14, molecular weight 801.00. White powder (acetone), mp197℃～198℃, [α]D30+6.99°(c=1.00, methanol).
(6) Ginsenoside Rg1: molecular formula C42H72O14, molecular weight 830.03. Colorless semi-crystalline substance (n-butanol-methyl ethyl ketone), mp194℃～195℃, [α]D19.5+32°(pyridine). Soluble in methanol, pyridine and hot acetone, slightly insoluble in ethyl acetate and chloroform.
(7) Ginsenoside Rg3: molecular formula C42H72O13, molecular weight 784. White crystal (dioxane), mp298℃～301℃. Insoluble in methanol, easily soluble in pyridine.
(8) Ginsenoside Rh1: molecular formula C36H62O9, molecular weight 638. White powder crystal (methanol), mp248℃～252℃.
(9) Ginsenoside RA0: molecular weight 1286. White needles (methanol), mp192℃～193℃.
(10) Pseudo ginsenoside F11: molecular formula C42H72O14. White powder, mp208℃～210℃, [α]D14-21.5°(c=1.77, methanol).